1.26 (Which is 12.43 at the end

When the specimens were finished and the specimens were ready, the freeze-thaw cycle test chamber could be used to test freeze-thaw cycles to the specimens. However, there are only a few studies of the characteristics of shape of particles in the process of freeze-thaw (cryogenic weathering). Once the test chamber had reached the desired amount of freeze-thaw cycles required, the specimens were brought out to be tested.1 Recent studies have demonstrated that the aggregation and fragmentation of soil particles creates the phenomenon of silt level enrichment 3,19,20 and 21,22.

The remaining specimens went through freeze-thaw cycle tests until the freeze-thaw cycles scheduled were complete. This is the only physical weathering characteristic for cryogenic soil.1 After the freeze-thaw and testing, the samples were analyzed and analysed using the particle image processor. The degree of siltylation that occurs in cryogenic soils can be directly linked with factors like freezing intensity and time in particular, the continuous fluctuation of weather patterns that fluctuate between warmer and colder temperatures will trigger the development of the soil 4,23,24 .1 The results of the test, including aspects ratios and the roundness of the specimens were analysed (Table 2.). The shape and surface shape of grains as revealed in the previous literature offer important details about the origin, the transport, and deposition histories.

Analysis and results. However, there are few studies that focus on the morphological properties of the particles that occur during the freeze-thaw process (cryogenic weathering).1 Study of the particle aspect ratio. To determine the distinct morphological characteristics that distinguish particles exposed to cryogenic weathering we carried out freeze-thaw experiments on four different soil samples. Figure 3 displays the change in the percentage of soil content of the aspect ratio of a specific area following 0, 5, 10 50, 100 and freeze-thaw cycles.1 It is our hope that this study will uncover the distinct morphological traits of soil’s primary mineral particles that are exposed to the an environment that is cryogenic. The figures show the comparisons between every soil size.

Material and techniques. The image illustrates that the proportion of aspect ratios of soil particles between the freeze-thaw cycle and before is evenly distributed between 1 to 6.1 Test soil specimens. Between four specimens in the study, the amount of the aspect ratios from 1 to 4 was 98%, suggesting that the aspect ratios of the specimens was mainly spread among 1 and 4 which means that particles that had an aspect ratio higher than 4 could be more likely to be broken up. The test chose loess (L), fine sand (CS) extremely fine sand (VFS) and fine sand (FS) as the testing objects.1 The maximum value of four specimens ranged between the range of 1 to 2 (e.g. the proportion of particles having the aspect ratio 1.26 (which is 12.43 at the end of the 50th freeze/thaw cycles for The specimen (loess)).

The physical properties and the distribution of grains of the four soil specimens are displayed in Table 1.1 The tops of samples (L) (L) and the sample (CS) are soft The tops in specimen (VFS) (VFS) and the specimen (FS) are steep. Test equipment. The change in the percentage content of a particular dimension ratio for four soil samples during various freeze-thaw cycles. ( an Specimen(L) and B the Specimen (CS) (VFS); C Specificimen (VFS) (d The Specimen (FS)).1 The freeze-thaw cycles examination of soil samples was performed in the test chamber for freeze-thaw cycles (Fig.

1a). The most prominent aspect ratio that was observed following the higher amount of freeze-thaw was 1.26 The aspect ratio was 1.26, with more than 12.43 percent of the four samples with aspects ratios of 1.26 at the end of 50 freeze-thaw cycles.1 The model for the test chamber for freeze-thaw cycles is ZLHS-250-LS. The ratio was 11.22 percent at the end of 100 freeze-thaw cycles, which means that the particle’s state is stable and doesn’t get easily broken with an aspect ratio of 1.26. The soil sample was saturated using the vacuum pumping saturation method 25 , and the specimens were then sealed with cling films.1 As freeze-thaw cycles increased, cycles the percentage of particle aspect ratio grew either decreased or increased, and this suggests that freeze-thaw cycles may alter the aspect ratio of the particle.

The temperature test probe within the sample is used to determine if the soil sample is fully frozen and thawed.1 the temperature of the sample at the time of the test is measured using the temperature probe that is placed in the air. Overall, aspects ratios of particle show declining trends, that is, the percentage of particles with a high aspect ratio decreases and those having small aspect ratios rises which suggests that particles’ shapes are closer to a square or circular shape when there is an increase in freeze-thaw cycles.1 In addition, insulation material is utilized for ensuring that the sample will freeze in a single direction (Fig. 1b). In order to better depict the changes in the dimension ratio of the particles upon freezing and thawing, the fragmentation process is described in terms of a conceptual diagram. Test apparatus: ( a ) Freeze-thaw test instrument; ( b ) Schematic diagram of freeze-thaw tests for soil samples. ( the third ) Particle Image Processor.1

Like in Fig. 4. In order to study the shape and shape changes of soil specimens following freeze and thaw cycles using a particle image processing (Fig. 1c) was used to examine the soil specimens following freezing and the thawing process. The changing process that occurs in particle aspect ratios will be as follows: Under the effects of tension and temperature cracks form at the top of the soil particle.1

The range of measurement for the particle image processors employed in the experiment is 0.5 millimeters to 3000 millimeters Repetition accuracy: 1 %. The water from the soil is absorbed into the crack and the changing phase of the water within the crack causes the crack to expand and to fragment.1 The data processing technique that the image processing processor uses is measuring background adjustment as well as adjustment particle image conversion and transmission particle image binarization, edge search as well as calculations of parameters of particles such as analysis statistics, and results output.1 This fragmentation process of soil particles eventually causes an increase within the ratio between the particle’s sides. The computer detects the edges of the particles based upon the received signal of binarization and then calculates automatically the size, aspect ratio , and roundness that each particle.1 It should be noted that in the case of the bigger particle size could be lower in the opposite direction. The typical image (i.e. the field of view of an imager) comprises from a couple of or hundreds of particle.

Conceptual diagram showing the changes on aspect ratios for the large particle size caused by freeze-thaw cycles.1 The imager calculates automatically and count all particles within the view field to generate the report. The size of the specimen’s grains (CS) during freeze-thaw cycles were utilized to determine the change in the aspect ratio of particles. If there aren’t enough particles assessed, the microscope can be adjusted to shift to the next area of view and continue to test and count.1 As can be seen in Fig. 5, that particle’s aspect ratio has changed following the freeze-thaw process. This processor may produce data like aspects ratio (Fig.

2a), roundness (Fig. 2b) Specific surface area and variation in grain size. The shape of particles is generally rectangular, polygonal, or elliptical.1 Schematic diagram of the aspect ratio ( A ) and the roundness ( roundness ( ). The strip shape is only a few and it is less common for particles having more aspect ratio is smaller which means that particles with higher aspect ratios are less likely to be fragmented.

Test the program. Furthermore to this, it was observed there was a higher proportion of particles that had smaller aspect ratio was greater.1 The four types of soil specimens were naturally dried or crushed and then sieved (2 millimeters) and the soil samples were used for freeze-thaw cycles test. This is in accordance with analyses of samples (CS) from Fig. 3. The freeze-thaw test was conducted at -20°C for freezing, and + 20 degC for freezing.1

A particle size photo of the sample (CS) in the aftermath of freeze-thaw cycles. ( a 0 freeze-thaw cycles; b 5 freeze-thaw cycles; c 10 freeze-thaw cycles; d 50 freeze-thaw cycles; e 100 freeze-thaw cycles). We performed preliminary experiments on samples to determine the ideal freeze-thaw period. Study of the particle’s roundness.1 The time needed for soil samples to be completely frozen and thawed takes 4 hours.

Figure 6 shows the percentage change in the roundness of the particles of four samples following various freeze-thaw cycles. So the freeze-thaw time is eight hours. The blue-dotted line in the figure represents the curve for percentage change that shows the typical roundness particles following freeze-thaw cycles.1 Utilizing the ring knife (diameter 61. eight millimeters, and 20 millimeters high) to limit the effect in the physical properties of specimens, in order to ensure that the specimens are in the same place and the validity and clarity of the test results. It is apparent in the figure how the percent content varied after freeze-thaw cycles.1 The prepared specimens were vapour-saturated and sealed both up and down using cling films to preserve the state of closed condition of the system. This shows that the particle’s roundness changed following freeze-thaw.

This study was designed to collect specimens and test after 0, 5, 10 50, and 100 freeze-thaw cycles.1 As a whole, with the increasing number of freeze-thaw cycles the percentage amount of smaller roundness values diminished, and the percent amount of large roundness was higher, which suggested that the shape of the particle was closer to a circular shape.

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